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9.2 Production of Materials Notes
1 Found helpful • 16 Pages • Partial Study Notes • Year: Pre-2018
9.2 Production of Materials Fossil fuels provide both energy and raw materials such as ethylene, for the production of other substances Construct word and balanced formulae equations of chemical reactions as they are encountered Thermal cracking e.g. C10H22 (l) □(→) C8H18 (l) + C2H4 (g) Catalytic cracking e.g. C10H22 (l) □(→┴catalyst ) C8H18 (l) + C2H4 (g) Reactions of alkanes Combustion Complete combustion – plentiful supply of oxygen; products: water and carbon dioxide e.g. 2C8H18 (l) + 25O2 (g) → 16CO2 (g) + 18H2O (l) Incomplete combustion – insufficient supply of oxygen; products: water and carbon monoxide and/or soot e.g. 2C8H18 (l) + 17O2 (g) → 16CO (g) + 18H2O (l) 2C8H18 (l) + 9O2 (g) → 16C (s) + 18H2O (l) Substitution e.g. CH4 (g) + Cl2 (g) →┴UV CH3Cl () + HCl (aq) Reactions of alkenes Combustion Addition Hydrogenation ethene + hyrodgen → ethane e.g. C2H4 (g) + H2 (g) →┴catalyst C2H6 catalyst: nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd) or platinum (Pt) Halogenation ethene +halogen → 1,2-dihaloethane e.g. C2H4 (g) + X2 → C2H4X2 X = Cl, Br, I, F... Hydrohalogenation ethene +hydrogen halide → haloethane e.g. C2H4 (g) + HX → C2H5X X = Cl, Br, I, F... Hydration ethene +water →┴(dilute H_2 SO_4 ) ethanol e.g. C2H4 (g) + H2O (g) →┴(dilute H_2 SO_4 ) C2H5OH (g) Dehydration ethanol →┴(conc. H_2 SO_4 ) ethene +water
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