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The immune system in the human body recognizes pathogens based on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and uses these receptors to elicit an immune response by the body. Immune repsonses can include the production of antibodies against the pathogens and the expression of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and chemokines to attract more macrophages and neutrophils to site of infection. Ultimately, these responses help to eliminate the invading pathogen from the body. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a method which can be used to detect these antibodies, cytokines and chemokines produced by the cells. In this practical, we detect the levels of inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, production by macrophages in response to a pathogen-associated stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by using the sandwich ELISA protocol.

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