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59 Pages • Complete Study Notes • Year: Pre-2018
The Evolution of Management Theory Chapter 2 2.1: Provide some examples of early management practice. Pyramid Construction: Managers organised the workers and told them what to do, organised them and oversaw that the project was being built according to the right specifications. Great Wall of China: Similar requirements as above. A modern approach to management followed after 2 main influences: 1) Adam Smith published ‘The Wealth of Nations’, proposing economic advantages from the division of labour (specialisation). - Adam Smith: Division of labour maximised each worker’s productivity by increasing their skill and dexterity, and by avoiding the wasting of time switching tasks. 2) Industrial Revolution: Human power was replaced by machine power which in turn made it more economical to manufacture goods in factories rather than at home. - Large, inefficient factories needed managers to forecast demand, ensure material was on hand, assign tasks to people, direct daily activities, maintenance, working conditions and coordinate with buyers and sellers. There are 4 main approaches to management: 1) Classical: Scientific Management and General Administrative Theory; 2) Quantitative; 3) Behavioural: Early Advocates, Hawthorne Studies, Human Relations Movement and Behavioural Science Theorists; 4) Contemporary: Systems Theory and Contingency Theory. 2.2: Discuss the important contributions of scientific management within the classical approach. Classical Approach: Emphasised rationality and making organisations and workers as efficient as possible. Two major theories within the classical approach: 1) Scientific Management: - Principles of Scientific Management by Fredrick Winslow: ‘the use of the one best way for the job to be done’. - Four Principles: 1. Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work with standardised work implements and
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