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HNN227 Quality and Saftey Nursing - Weeks 1-6
Page 1/15

HNN227 Quality and Saftey Nursing - Weeks 1-6

HNN227 - Quality & Safety Nursing Practice 3

15 Pages 1 Student Found this helpful Deakin University Partial Study Notes Year Uploaded: 2016

Example of pages: Pneumonia Inflammatory condition of lungs (bronchioles + alveoli), caused by infection of pathogens (bacteria + viruses) • Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) • Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) Caused typically by: • Bacteria (75%) • Viruses • Fungi (rare) Pathogenesis: method by which infection occurred Organisms reach lung by either: • Aspiration • Inhalation o Organisms inhaled from air • Spread through blood o Blood born spread from infection elsewhere in body Pathophysiology: • Bacteria from upper airways reach lower airways and begin to multiply (upper airway to bronchi) • Alveoli fills with fluid instead of gas ( consolidation) Patient assessment: • Dyspnoea – difficult breathing • Chest pain – due to damage to lung tissue • Cough- body defence mechanism • Blood stained sputum • Confusion – hypoxia (lack of O2 to cells of brain) • Anxiety • Malaise – feeling unwell • Auscultation of lungs – hear crackles, decreased air entry Vital signs: • Tachycardia – increase HR • Febrile – high temp – hypothalamus reacting to infection (setting a new high temp range) • Reduced SpO2 – blood not being oxygenated • Increased RR Diagnosis: • CXR – chest x ray • Sputum sample – to ID organisms • ABGs – arterial blood gasses • WBC – white blood cells – will be higher due to infection • Blood culture - to make sure organism hasn’t invaded blood Factors affecting HAP: • Smoking • Respiratory disease • Immobile – less lung expansion • Age – older people • Airway devices/NGT feeding = easier for bacteria to reach lungs • Alcohol • Malnutrition Potential problems: • Ineffective airway clearance: inability to clear secretions (mucous) • Impaired gas exchange • Pain – muscle strain from excessive coughing • Fluid volume deficit – sweating, vomiting • Altered nutrition – decreased oral intake • Altered comfort: sweating, nausea • Dry oral mucous membranes (dry mouth) • Activity intolerance

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